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Jan 272013
 
The equine trapezius muscle attaches the neck vertebrae to the shoulder blade.

Pain in the traps can make a horse shorten his stride, have problems with lead changes and react when the cinch is tightened.

What signs and symptoms does a horse exhibit when experiencing  trapezius muscle dysfunction?

  • Horse will react when girth is tightened (cinchy)
  • Soreness in the withers area
  • Shortened stride
  • Problems picking up or changing leads
  • Loss of power in the front leg

Where is the trapezius muscles located?

  • The trapezius attaches the neck (cervical) and mid back (thoracic) vertebrae to the shoulder blade (scapula).

What movements are attributed to the trapezius muscle?

  • Raises the shoulder blade (scapula)
  • Cervical portion moves the shoulder blade (scapula) forward
  • Thoracic portion moves the shoulder blade (scapula) back

Activities that cause trapezius muscle pain and symptoms in the horse:

  • Excessive rein pulling by the rider ( lesson horse, rental horse)
  • Landing when jumping (jumpers, event horse, steeplechase)
  • Sudden starts, quick stops, sudden change in direction (race horse, polo horse, reining horse, cutting horse, work cow horse, barrel horse, gymkhana horse)
  • Gaited horses will often exhaust these muscles
  • Saddles that fit poorly
  • Riders who drop down in the saddle
  • Riders who bounce up and down on the horse’s back



Recommended Books About Horse Anatomy

Learn Equine Anatomy

Clinical Anatomy of the Horse will guide you in learning about the anatomy of the horseIf you are someone who wants to understand your horse inside out, this book is for you! Clinical Anatomy Of The Horse  is the most comprehensive visual equine anatomy book on the market. Images are not diagrams, they are pictures taken while examining live horses and photos of autopsies performed immediately after death. The photos are very graphic so viewer be warned. But if the site of a dissected body does not bother you, I highly recommend this book. It will give you a visual map of the anatomy and physiology of your horse

Discover How The Skeleton and Muscles Move When Your Horse Is In Motion

How Your Horse Moves helps you understand how groups of muscles work together for movement.
How Your Horse Moves: A visual guide to improving performance, should be in the library of everyone who rides and takes care of horses. Author Gillian Higgins paints the skeleton and muscles on live horses with amazing precision. The photos allow you to not only see exactly how your horse’s bone structure is put together but also shows how the muscles move as the horse is in motion. Ms. Higgins also provides information about the skeletal bones, easy to understand information about muscle and soft tissue bio-mechanics explanations of movement, a trouble shooting guide and simple but effective stretches for not only your horse but you too! If you are an equine massage therapist, physical therapist, or chiropractor, this book is a must have.

Learn Basic Equine Massage Techniques To Help Your Horse

Learn basic equine massage techniques and the theory behind equine massage
The Basic Principles of Equine Massage/Muscle Therapy is book for those who want to learn to help their horse with basic massage techniques. The first part of the book explains massage theory and equine anatomy in an easy to understand format. The next section of the book is a pictorial of Mike Scott working on a horse. Mike shows which technique to use, placement of hands and gives an idea of how much pressure to apply. The book ends with sections on stretching your horse and proper saddle fitting. Though the book is geared to beginners, professional equine massage therapist will glean knowledge and tips. This is a good book for beginners and a great reference book for the experienced equine bodyworker.


Anatomy Study: Origin, Insertion, Action and Innervation Trapezius Muscle of the Horse:

  • Origin: The supraspinous ligament,from the 3rd to the 10th thoracic vertebra.
  • Insertion:  The tubercle of the spine of the scapula.
  • Action: Acting as a whole, to elevate the shoulder; the cervical portion
    draws the scapula forward and upward and the thoracic portion draws it backward
    and upward.
  • Innervation: Spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI)

 



 

Jan 272013
 
The rhomboid muscles of the horse attach the cervical neck vertebrae and the thoracic upper back vertebrae to the shoulder blade.

Pain in the rhomboid muscles will make a horse react when the girth is tightened.

What signs and symptoms does a horse exhibit when experiencing rhomboid muscle dysfunction?

  • Horse will react when girth is tightened
  • Soreness in the withers area
  • Soreness along the top of the neck
  • Shortened stride
  • Problems picking up or changing leads
  • Loss of power in the front leg

Where are the rhomboid muscles located?

  • The rhomboids attach the neck (cervical) and mid back (thoracic) vertebrae to the shoulder blade (scapula)

What movements are attributed to the rhomboid muscles?

  • Raises the shoulder blade (scapula)
  • Moves the shoulder blade (scapula) forward
  • Raises the neck (elevation)

Activities that cause rhomboid muscle pain and symptoms in the horse:

  • Excessive rein pulling by the rider
  • Landing after a jump
  • Gaited horses will often exhaust these muscles
  • Race Horses stress the rhomboids when leaving the gate
  • Saddles that fit poorly
  • Riders who drop down in the saddle
  • Riders who bounce up and down on the horse’s back


How Can Equine Massage Therapy Help With Rhomboid Symptoms?

Massage therapy can help with rhomboid muscle pain and symptoms by releasing stress points that along the length of the muscle. The muscle is then worked to relieve additional tension. Gentle stretching of the shoulder and front legs muscles will encourage the rhomboids to return to their normal state.


Recommended Books About Horse Anatomy

Learn Equine Anatomy

Clinical Anatomy of the Horse will guide you in learning about the anatomy of the horseIf you are someone who wants to understand your horse inside out, this book is for you! Clinical Anatomy Of The Horse  is the most comprehensive visual equine anatomy book on the market. Images are not diagrams, they are pictures taken while examining live horses and photos of autopsies performed immediately after death. The photos are very graphic so viewer be warned. But if the site of a dissected body does not bother you, I highly recommend this book. It will give you a visual map of the anatomy and physiology of your horse

Discover How The Skeleton and Muscles Move When Your Horse Is In Motion

How Your Horse Moves helps you understand how groups of muscles work together for movement.
How Your Horse Moves: A visual guide to improving performance, should be in the library of everyone who rides and takes care of horses. Author Gillian Higgins paints the skeleton and muscles on live horses with amazing precision. The photos allow you to not only see exactly how your horse’s bone structure is put together but also shows how the muscles move as the horse is in motion. Ms. Higgins also provides information about the skeletal bones, easy to understand information about muscle and soft tissue bio-mechanics explanations of movement, a trouble shooting guide and simple but effective stretches for not only your horse but you too! If you are an equine massage therapist, physical therapist, or chiropractor, this book is a must have.

Learn Basic Equine Massage Techniques To Help Your Horse

Learn basic equine massage techniques and the theory behind equine massage
The Basic Principles of Equine Massage/Muscle Therapy is book for those who want to learn to help their horse with basic massage techniques. The first part of the book explains massage theory and equine anatomy in an easy to understand format. The next section of the book is a pictorial of Mike Scott working on a horse. Mike shows which technique to use, placement of hands and gives an idea of how much pressure to apply. The book ends with sections on stretching your horse and proper saddle fitting. Though the book is geared to beginners, professional equine massage therapist will glean knowledge and tips. This is a good book for beginners and a great reference book for the experienced equine bodyworker.


Anatomy Study: Origin, Insertion, Action and Innervation of the  Rhomboid Cervicis Muscle of the Horse:

  • Origin: nuchal and dorsoscapular ligaments from C2 – T8
  • Insertion:  scapular cartilage
  • Action: draws the scapula upward and forward. When limb is fixed assists with elevation of the neck.
  • Innervation: Sixth cervical nerve

Origin, Insertion, Action and Innervation of the Rhomboid Thoracalis Muscle of the Horse:

  • Origin: spinous processes of the 2nd to the 7th thoracic vertebra by means of the dorso-scapular ligament.
  • Insertion:  scapular cartilage
  • Action: draws the scapula upward and forward.
  • Innervation: Sixth cervical nerve


Jan 262013
 
The brachiocephalicus connects the horse's base of the skull and first cervical vertebrae to the humerus bone in the front leg.

If a horse is stretching his neck excessively, having problems changing or picking up leads, and is uncomfortable while working in circles, check the brachiocephalicus.

What signs and symptoms does a horse exhibit when experiencing  brachiocephalicus muscle dysfunction?

  • Stretching the neck upwards or to the opposite side of afflicted muscle
  • In motion the horse travels fine in a straight line, but will feel off on circles. If the muscle is not treated, the horse will start to feel off during all movement
  • Has problem picking up front lead on affected side

Where is the brachiocephalicus muscle located?

The brachiocephalicus muscle is a superficial (top layer) muscle found on each side of the neck. It attaches the base of the skull (mastoid process of temporal bone)  and first cervical vertebra  (C1) to the upper bone in the front leg (humerus).

What movements of the horse are attributed to the brachiocephalicus muscle?

  • Moves front leg forward
  • Brings front leg in toward other leg (adduction)
  • Bends the head and neck to the same side as muscle contraction (lateral flexion)

Activities that cause brachiocephalicus muscle pain and symptoms in the horse:

  • Riders who balance on the reins (lesson horses)
  • A horse whose discipline requires collection and flexion of the head/neck (dressage, race horses)
  • Sudden change in direction causing a rider to jerk the horses head to one side (polo horses)
  • Sudden stops, turns, twisting head, neck, shoulders (polo, reining, working cow)
  • Pulling sulkies or buggies (trotters, pacers, harness horses)
  • Pulling back when tied


How Can Equine Massage Therapy Help With Brachiocephalicus Symptoms:

Massage therapy can help with the brachiocephalicus muscle by releasing a stress point that is located in the muscle near the shoulder. Once the stress point is released the muscle is checked for additional stress points and tension which are released. The head and neck are then stretched, encouraging the muscle to return to a tension free normal state.


Recommended Books About Horse Anatomy

Learn Equine Anatomy

Clinical Anatomy of the Horse will guide you in learning about the anatomy of the horseIf you are someone who wants to understand your horse inside out, this book is for you! Clinical Anatomy Of The Horse  is the most comprehensive visual equine anatomy book on the market. Images are not diagrams, they are pictures taken while examining live horses and photos of autopsies performed immediately after death. The photos are very graphic so viewer be warned. But if the site of a dissected body does not bother you, I highly recommend this book. It will give you a visual map of the anatomy and physiology of your horse

Discover How The Skeleton and Muscles Move When Your Horse Is In Motion

How Your Horse Moves helps you understand how groups of muscles work together for movement.
How Your Horse Moves: A visual guide to improving performance, should be in the library of everyone who rides and takes care of horses. Author Gillian Higgins paints the skeleton and muscles on live horses with amazing precision. The photos allow you to not only see exactly how your horse’s bone structure is put together but also shows how the muscles move as the horse is in motion. Ms. Higgins also provides information about the skeletal bones, easy to understand information about muscle and soft tissue bio-mechanics explanations of movement, a trouble shooting guide and simple but effective stretches for not only your horse but you too! If you are an equine massage therapist, physical therapist, or chiropractor, this book is a must have.

Learn Basic Equine Massage Techniques To Help Your Horse

Learn basic equine massage techniques and the theory behind equine massage
The Basic Principles of Equine Massage/Muscle Therapy is book for those who want to learn to help their horse with basic massage techniques. The first part of the book explains massage theory and equine anatomy in an easy to understand format. The next section of the book is a pictorial of Mike Scott working on a horse. Mike shows which technique to use, placement of hands and gives an idea of how much pressure to apply. The book ends with sections on stretching your horse and proper saddle fitting. Though the book is geared to beginners, professional equine massage therapist will glean knowledge and tips. This is a good book for beginners and a great reference book for the experienced equine bodyworker.


Anatomy Study: Origin, Insertion, Action and Innervation of the Brachiocephalicus Muscle of the Horse

Equine Brachiocephalicus Muscle consists of two muscles:

Cleidobrachialis Muscle

  • Origin: inscription of clavicle
  • Insertion:  crest of the humerus
  • Action:  advances limb, adducts limb
  • Innervation:  Axillary nerve
  1. Cleidomastoideus Muscle

  • Origin: clavicular intersection
  • Insertion:  mastoid process of temporal bone
  • Action:  advances limb, lateral flexion of neck, rotates head
  • Innervation:  Ventral branch of Accessory nerve(cranial nerve XI)